Monday, July 27, 2020
Top Ten Reasons Iâm Thankful for Thanksgiving 10. I wont have to think about the Crystal Field Theory Which is unfortunately what we happen to be learning about in my 5.112 (Principles of Chemistry) class at the moment. Luckily, my TA is awesome, and he was perfectly willing to spend an hour of his time today explaining it all to me so now, I understand it in a kind-of-not-really sort of way. How I wish I were like my friend in high school, who would fall asleep on her history book and wake up knowing everything. 9. I get to eat real food!!! Food is rather prominent in my thoughts right now, seeing as how I endured eight excruciatingly-foodless hours today while I migrated from one class to another. My Tuesdays are pretty intense: Physics 9 to 11, HASS 11 to 12, Yoga 12 to 1, Calc 1 to 2, Chem Recitation 2 to 3, Calc Office Hours 3 to 4, Seminar 4 to 5:15. Um. Painful. 8. Ill have time to watch TV. This is a big deal, guys. Be excited for me. 7. I can make fun of Aditya 13, Swetha 13, and Pooja 13. Why? Because they have a physics project that theyre going to be working on all through break. Do I have a physics project too? Not at all :) Im spending all of Thanksgiving with these three; Im going to exhaust the gloating powers within me. 6. I can sleep as much as I want. Ive been pretty good about getting a suitable amount of sleep each night, but Im definitely not going to complain if a few more hours come my way on a daily basis. I have this uneasy feeling that finals are going to seem a lot closer on the other side of Thanksgiving; a couple sleepless nights in the near future are largely expected. And dreaded. 5. I can do laundry. Im notoriously awful at doing my laundry on a regular basis. I basically wait until Ive run out of towels and cant possibly take a shower till I wash my clothes. I am proud to tell you that I have never sacrificed a shower simply because I dont have towels. Cleanliness is next to Godliness. 4. I can catch up on reading! I love novels so much so that when I filled out the What do you like to do for fun? portion of my MIT application last year, I wrote about how essential reading was to my existence. I proceeded to write about this interest of mine in several other college essays. Sadly, I havent had much time to read for pleasure these past few months. Highest on my To-Read List: The Last Lecture, by Randy Pausch. Its reputedly amazing. 3. My physics professor is going to re-grade my first two tests over the break And give me points back :) 2. I have time to thoroughly research autism for my HASS paper. For my HASS class (Disease and Society in America), we get to pick any topic (course-related, of course) we want and write about it. Ive chosen to write about the history of autism, along with the controversy surrounding the whole idea that vaccines somehow cause autism (false, by the way!). Im actually really excited about this paper because I get to write about something Im genuinely interested in and is rather visible in society. For the first time in my life, writing a paper might actually be fun. But the number one reason Im thankful for Thanksgiving: 1. Because I get a BREAAAAAAAKKKKKKKKKKKK!!!!
Friday, May 22, 2020
Fear; whether looked at as a positive or negative fear is undoubtedly a driving force for action. To fight or fly past this strange and sometimes crippling emotion can be challenge. It will never leave the back of your mind unless you take action. I was in fourth grade at the time my Grandfather was struggling with dialysis. I remember walking into the room where he received treatment and being scared to the point of tears of the sickly, pale and disable people also in the room. I knew my grandfather was there but it just did not seem like it was the real him as he was one of the faces I was scared of the most. Shortly after his passing the choir took at trip to sing at a nursing home. As I walked in I was immediately panicked to theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The part I was most fearful of. As they entered with their nurses one by one the fear subsided. My confidence rose as I had a greater self concept (Hybels, S., Weaver, R. L. . Communicating effectively. Pg. 34) of myself, I knew that I go do it from this point on.(Hybels, S., Weaver, R. L. . Communicating effectively. Pg 32) The initial anxiety had surpassed and I was able to communicate with the clients. I started listening (Hybels, S., Weaver, R. L. 2015. Communicating effectively. Pg. 122) to the stories they were telling me as we were doing the activity. Yes most of them were very boring and did not make too much sense but I was still active listening and being as responsive as possible. I utilized verbal communication (Hybels, S., Weaver, R. L. 2015. Communicating effectively. Pg.58) skills such as speaking in a calm and welcoming tone, sounding excited to be there and really giving my personal opinions on subjects and not dismissing the elderly like most of the employees there do. I used a mix of Informative listening( Hybels, S., Weaver, R. L. 2015. Communicating effectively. Pg.141) where I attempted to understand more about their early life and Empathic listening (Hybels, S., Weave r, R. L. 2015. Communicating effectively. Pg.142) by trying to connect with them on an emotional level and really committing myself fully to the conversation. I soon realized I was experiencing Cultural Listening(Hybels, S., Weaver, R. L. 2015.Show MoreRelatedThe Most Common Fear Children Have Growing Up1241 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswhen home alone. Those are common fears that children have growing up. What is fear? Does everyone have fear? Does fear control oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life? Can fear be controlled? Fear is something everyone experiences in life. Fear is a part of life. According to the Oxford Dictionary, Ã¢â¬Å"fear is an unpleasant emotion triggered by the belief that someone or something is dangerous, likely to cause pain, or a threatÃ¢â¬ . Fear is experienced by everyone, and it is an unavoidable emotion. Fear can be overwhelming, especiallyRead MoreFear Is More Powerful Than Reason1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdominant side. Negative feelings like fear, hostility, and distress a re also constantly present and the media further accentuates it. It can be said that negativity drives our actions and influences the decisions we make. Journalist, Sharon Begley, explains that fear is more powerful than reason and that humans have a natural defense mechanism to avoid situations that make you afraid. Politicians actively employ negativity into their campaigns and consequently have higher chances of winning. Fear is a powerfulRead MoreDog Phobia Case Study1741 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Dog Phobia Case Study A phobia is an Ã¢â¬Å"irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid the subject of the phobiaÃ¢â¬ (Ankrom, 2009 pg.325). 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Essay1579 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageselse around them is becoming successful the talented individual will not know how to use their talents to excel past the rest. (Campbell. 2014. Para. 5). These talented individuals seem likely to succeed but do not because they simply do not practice, fear failure and do not receive feedback. The saying practice makes perfect is an accurate statement when attempting to becoming successful. Malcolm Gladwell wrote an essay called How to Be a Success, in which he states that in order to be a successRead MoreThe Qualities Of Leadership And Self Examination1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesleadership and self examination I believe I now know I am capable to lead. Leadership is a person that develops and continues to develop specific skills that create a positive influence over others, with an end goal of reciprocal love focused in unity to achieve set goals. Leadership is not the management of personal, it is creating positive influence that motivates followers.(Daft, 2015) Leaders diligently seek to understand themselves and those they are leading. Uncovering personal blind spots andRead MoreDefinition Of Behavior Modification : Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ( Ocd ) Essay1336 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexcessive and irrational fear reaction. If you have a phobia, you may experience a deep sense of panic when you meet the source of your fear. The fear can be of a certain place, situation or object. Phobia is unlike general anxiety disorders it is usually connected to something specific. The impact of a phobia can range from annoying to severely crippling. People with phobias often realize their fear is irrational, but theyÃ¢â¬â¢re unable to do anything about it. Such fears can interfere with your work
Friday, May 8, 2020
Stolen Generations Speech- Ashley Condon The Stolen Generations is a term that is well known by nearly every Australian Nationwide. They were the Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islanders that we forcibly removed from their families whilst still children. The removals of these children occurred between 1909 and 1969. It is unknown how many suffered this but it is estimated to be around 100,000. The children were generally taken by Australian government officials or State and territory authorities as well as police men or other agents of the state. They had enough power to remove and then locate these children to other non-indigenous homes, communities or places like institutions or camps. Such institutions existed in places like Moore River Native Settlement in Western Australia, Doomadgee Aboriginal Mission in Queensland, Ebenezer Mission in Victoria and Wellington Valley Mission in New South Wales. Aboriginal children were targeted because the Australian public and governments believed that they were disadvantaged, at risk in their homes and communities, they need a better education or a better family. They were being removed to be brought up in a white Australian family therefore adopting their habits and values. They wanted to limit the amount of children being neglected by their parents as well as those being affected by malnourishment because of their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s poor wages. This was known as racial assimilation, meaning they had the right to live as members of a single
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
After a nearly forty year rule over an empire of unprecedented size and complexity, Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire abdicated his throne in 1555-6. His rein saw much adversity yet he had great success and during his rein, the empire grew and prospered. However, a series of political, militaristic and health problems culminated in CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s retirement. We will write a custom essay sample on Why did Charles V Abdicate? or any similar topic only for you Order Now To explore these problems and to fully comprehend why Charles relinquished his power is the topic of this essay. By and large, Charles V was the most powerful leader in Europe during his rein (Cavendish 2006). His realm was described as Ã¢â¬Å"an empire which the sun never set onÃ¢â¬ and it encompassed about 1,500,000 square miles. A Habsburg in his teens, in 1516 he inherited Spain, which had been unified by his grandparents Isabella and Ferdinand. In 1519 he succeeded his paternal grandfather Maximilian I as Holy Roman Emperor (Cavendish 2006). He was Duke of Burgundy and Archduke of Austria and he also ruled the Netherlands, Bohemia, Hungary, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia. Ruling Spain meant ruling Spanish America and in CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s time Cortes took Mexico and Pizarro conquered Peru (Cavendish 2006). The wealth of Spain paid for his efforts to control Western Europe. Despite sizeable incomes from parts of the empire, CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s rein encountered monetary difficulties attributing to military defeats. Encircled by the Holy Roman Empire, France existed as the empires great rival and had three major conflicts with the Holy Roman Empire during CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s rein. The first began in 1521 against CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s nemesis Francis I of France and was highly successful, driving the French out of Milan and defeating and capturing Francis at the Battle of Pavia in 1525. There were three later conflicts where the outcome was less conclusive and France acted as a constant oppose to the empire. Another great rival of CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s were the Ottomans, who put pressure of the Holy Roman EmpireÃ¢â¬â¢s Hungarian border and from piracy in the Mediterranean, especially in the 1530s. The predominately Islamic Ottoman Empire had a longstanding feud with the H. R. E. who was seen as the defender of Christendom (Claydon 2009). Charles the V is among the many rulers since ancient times who desired to create a neo-roman empire and as a Catholic, Charles hoped to unite all of Europe in a Christian empire of which he would be ruler. Unsurprisingly, the notion was met with fierce opposition. Not only did the French and the English prove resistant to the idea, but in 1517 Martin Luther nailed his theses to the church door at Wittenberg: CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s ambitions deteriorated on the Protestant Reformation. Not only a factor for political defeat, his staunch religious belief also be attributed to his decision to abdicate. When something went right he attributed it to God, his failure to unite Europe made Charles V feel unworthy and that God must surely want another ruler to extend the empire and destroy Protestantism and Islam. In addition to the great stress of battling a multitude of enemies, Charles had to bear loyalty problems from within the Holy Roman Empire. In 1520, the Comuneros in Castile demanded lower taxes, an end to Burgandian dominion of Castile. They would have preferred CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s mum, Joanna the Mad to rule (Claydon 2009). CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s brother Ferdinand, archduke of Austria and king of Bohemia and Hungary placed higher priority on defeating the Ottomans than on France and getting rid of Protestantism which were CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Charles failed to control Germany and the Princes saw Ferdinand as their actual ruler (Claydon 2009). In 1529, the Diet of Speyer saw the Lutheran princes protest CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s catholic policy in direct defiance of the empire. The princes of Germany also largely adopted protestantism which Charles abhorred and considered heresy. Another factor for his abdication is that by the 1550s that Protestantism in Germany would have to be tolerated. The Holy Roman Empire saw major finance problems during CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s rein. The cost of training and maintaining the armies of the H. R. E. were vast and Charles struggled to find the money (Claydon 2009). Charles had to cancel a successful campaign against France where victory was near due to funding problems. A large portion of the empireÃ¢â¬â¢s income was through taxes but in certain areas people highly resented taxes due to feelings of localism, for example, the Spanish resented paying for CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts on the other side of Europe whilst the German states saw Charles as a Ã¢â¬ËforeignerÃ¢â¬â¢ and resented his rule over them and considered their own Princes as supreme (Claydon 2009). A similar situation existed in Burgundy where the Flanders estates rejected a 1534 plan to be organised into an imperial Ã¢â¬ËcircleÃ¢â¬â¢ to provide regular taxes and troops. Also, CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s claim of Italy was not profitable because Italy was financially dependant and contributed little to the empire monetarily (Claydon 2009). After a series of unfortunate militaristic failures and chronic finance and loyalty problems, in about his mid-forties, Charles was afflicted by severe health issues, most notably agonising gout, as well as epilepsy and chronic indigestion which was caused by his Hapsburg jaw, a condition where the jaw is deformed and creates difficulty eating. It was common to his family line due to aristocratic inbreeding. Tests have been conducted on a finger of CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s (which was preserved separately from his body) by researchers at the University of Barcelona who have concluded that severe gout was the main cause of CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s abdication (Emery 2006). They concluded that anyone with a condition that severe could not work. Historically, gout is seen as a ailment of the very wealthy due to food that increase risk are red meat. Such lavish food was not available in great quanities to people of medium to little wealth. He suffered from a particular severe gout and many scholars think Charles V decided to abdicate after a gout attack in 1552 forced him to postpone an attempt to recapture the city of Metz, where he was later defeated. This incident appears to have acted as the straw that broke the camelÃ¢â¬â¢s back in CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to exit power. By now, Charles faced a great variety of tribulations. The implications from CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s failed was efforts, money and loyalty problems suggest he lacked full control of his empire. He felt that if God wanted him as ruler, he would have had an easier time. Overall, despite numerous reasons that probably influenced his decision, like failed military efforts, loyalty issues and his unwillingness to tolerate Protestantism in the empire, CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s health afflictions causing increasing inability to meets the demands of being Emperor, appears to be the key factor in his abdication. His epilepsy, gout and chronic indigestion (caused by his Habsburg jaw) surely made an already stressful and life dominating role of ruling a vast empire overwhelming and the various problems he faced culminated in his abdication. Despite being only fifty-eight at the time of his death, Charles must have appeared a frail and crippled old man who could barely walk (in his later years, he was carried around in a sedan chair) or use his hands (Emery 2006). Not a desirable public image for a mighty Emperor. Peaceful retirement to holy surroundings must have seemed a welcome change to a life of constant travel, warfare and turmoil. Charles VÃ¢â¬â¢s abdication has been interpreted differently. While many condemned it an unsuccessful manÃ¢â¬â¢s admission of failure and escape from the world, contemporaries of the time thought differently. There is evidence that Charles himself had been considering the idea even in his prime. In 1532 his secretary, Alfonso de Valdes, suggested to him the thought that a ruler who was incapable of preserving the peace and, indeed, who had to consider himself an obstacle to its establishment was obliged to retire from affairs of state. Upon the finalisation of the abdication, St. Ignatius of Loyola had this to say: Ã¢â¬Å"The emperor gave a rare example to his successors . . . he proved himself to be a true Christian prince . . may the Lord in all His goodness now grant the emperor freedom. Ã¢â¬ By todayÃ¢â¬â¢s standards, CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢s abdication would be nothing extraordinary considering his ailments and the stressful job requirements of emperor. Charles abdicated as Emperor in 1556 in favour of his brother Ferdinand; however, due to lengthy debate and bureaucratic procedure, the Imperial Diet did not accept the abdication (and thus make it legally valid) until May 3, 1558. Up to that date, Charles continued to use the title of Emperor. Charles gave Burgundy, Spain and the American colonies to his son Philip II. He retired to the Monastery of Yuste, near Cuacos de Yuste. The monastery was expanded in 1556 to make room for the emperor and the fifty to sixty members of his entourage. Charles was occasionally visited by notable people, including his illegitimate son Don Juan de Austria, as well as his heir Philip II of Spain. Like many former men of power in history, Charles was deeply interested in politics and was routinely posted on the news of the empire in his retirement. Probably hoping for news that his successors had created a miraculous Christian unification of Europe! He lived his few remaining months on earth amid works of art, of which he had a keen appreciation (Titian was his favourite painter), amid the books which, as a cultured man, he studied and took pleasure in enjoying the music (Knight 2009). His health afflictions worsened and he died of malaria on September 21, 1558 (de Zulueta 2007, 107-9). He was buried in the monastery church, though his remains were transferred twenty-six years later to San Lorenzo del Escorial. How to cite Why did Charles V Abdicate?, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Justification Byfaith In verse 15, Paul writes, We who are Jews by birth and not 'Gentile sinners Paul seems to be telling his gentile reader that the Torah has no bearing on their salvation. I feel that he purposely or inadvertently gives the law merit more merit than intended by suggesting that Jews are not sinners because they received the law. He draws a distinction between himself and the gentile sinners yet he is telling his audience that the ways, some of which are still a part of his own way of life, are irrelevant. He seems to almost make a separation of culture and religion. He seems to be saying that the rectitude of the Jews dates from birth, because the Jewish religion is a part of their culture. Peter claims to live up to the requirements of the Law. He had circumcision, the covenant, the promises, the apostleship. But in spite of his advantages as a Jew he still lets readers know that the law alone cannot save them. Verse 16 Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ. this is one of the clearest definitions in Scripture regarding the way in which we can become justified. Here in Galatians 2:16, justification deals with the fact that we cannot be justifiedor given good standing before Godthrough our obedience to the Law of Moses. According to Paul, it must be given to us by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ. Verse 16 Even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by doing the works of the law, because no one will be justified by doing the works of the law. The later part of verse 16 shows how much Paul has dedicated his work to the concept of justification by faith. Some would say that the reason for his adamant insistance of faith in Christ is related to his vision on the way to Damascus. It was such an incredible experience that he felt that every one needed to know that it was by faith alone that they could be justified. As a devout Jew he had followed the Law his entire life and felt it important that people know that in spite of his doing all the works of the Torah he was not justified before his vision. Verse 17. But if, while we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also are found sinners; is therefore Christ the minister of sin? God forbid. Some critics of this passage would argue that there are two sets of behavior standards given for Christian and Jews. In order to obtain salvation in Jewish faith one must follow the rule of like and ceremony. In order that a Christian obtain salvation they must only believe in Christ. Some were worried that this new religion would be saturated by people who wanted to commit acts against the law and still be saved because they professed to believe in Christ. The concept of grace and mercy was a foreign one and harsh judgment was a reality of the day. The other part of this verse was, is Christ a master of sin? Paul knew that some would argue that if all Christian had to do was believe that Christ must be a proponent of sin because he didnt threaten any penalty comparable to that of the old testament. Paul inserted that Christ was certainly not a master of sin. The Martin Luther commentary of Galatians states All who say that faith alone in Christ does not justify a person, convert Christ into a minister of sin, a teacher of the Law, and a cruel tyrant who requires the impossible. All merit-seekers take Christ for a new lawgiver. Martin Luther is saying that if Christ had required more than belief he would be a Minister of sin because that much pressure on people is cruelty. He also wrote in is commentary; The Law drives us away from God, but Christ reconciles God unto us, for He is the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the world. Now if the sin of
Friday, March 20, 2020
'Cosmos' Episode 5 Viewing Worksheet Lets face it: there are some days when teachers need to show videos or movies. Sometimes, it is to help supplement a lesson or unit so visual learners and auditory learners can grasp the concept. Many teachers also decide to leave videos to watch when a substitute teacher is planned. Still, others give students a bit of a break or a reward by having a movie day. Whatever your motivation, the Fox series Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, hosted by Neil deGrasse Tyson, is an excellent and entertaining television show with sound science. Tyson makes the science information accessible for all levels of learners and keeps the audience engaged throughout the entire episode. Below is a set of questions for Cosmos Episode 5, titled Hiding in the Light, that can be copy-and-pasted into a worksheet. It can be used as an assessment or a guided note-taking guide for the students as they travel along on the Ship of the Imagination and get introduced to great scientists and their discoveries. This particular episode focuses on waves and, in particular, light waves and how they compare to sound waves. It would be an excellent supplement to a physical science or physics class studying waves and their properties. Cosmos Hiding in the Light Worksheet What are two things Neil deGrasse Tyson says helped us evolved from a band of wandering hunting and gathering ancestors to a global civilization?What type of camera did Mo Tzu invent?What three things should all doctrines be tested with, according to Against Fate by Mo Tzu?What was the name of the first Emperor of China who wanted everything in China to be uniform?What happened to the books written by Mo Tzu?During Ibn AlhazenÃ¢â¬â¢s time, what was the agreed-upon hypothesis of how we see things?Where did our current number system and the concept of zero come from?What important property of light did Alhazen discover with only his tent, a piece of wood, and a ruler?What must happen to light in order for an image to form?How is the lens of a telescope and light like a big bucket and rain?What was AlhazenÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest contribution to science?What is the name of the only particle that can travel at the speed of light?The word Ã¢â¬Å"spectrumÃ¢â¬ comes from a Latin word meaning what?What did William HerschelÃ¢â¬â¢s experiment with light and heat prove? What was the profession of the man that kept an 11-year-old Joseph Fraunhofer as a slave?How did Joseph Fraunhofer get to meet the future King of Bavaria?Where did the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s counselor offer Joseph Fraunhofer a job?Why are organ pipes in the Abbey different lengths?What is the difference between light and sound waves as they travel?What determines the color of light we see?Which color has the lowest energy?Why are there dark bands in the spectra Joseph Fraunhofer saw?What is the force that holds atoms together?How old was Joseph Fraunhofer when he fell ill and what probably caused it?What did Joseph Fraunhofer discover about the elements that make up the universe?
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
USS Wyoming (BB-32) - US Navy USS WyomingÃ (BB-32) - Overview: Nation:Ã United States Type:Ã Battleship Shipyard:Ã William Cramp Sons, Philadelphia, PA Laid Down:Ã February 9, 1910 Launched:Ã May 25, 1911 Commissioned:Ã September 25, 1912 Fate:Ã Sold for Scrap USS WyomingÃ (BB-32) - Specifications: Displacement:Ã 26,000Ã tons Length:Ã 562 ft. Beam:Ã 93.1 ft. Draft:Ã 28.5 ft. Propulsion:Ã 12Ã Babcock and WilcoxÃ coal-fired boilersÃ with oil spray, 4-shaftÃ ParsonsÃ direct-driveÃ steam turbines Speed:Ã 20.5Ã knots Complement:Ã 1,063Ã menÃ¢â¬â¹ Armament: 12 Ãâ"Ã 12-inch/50 caliber Mark 7Ã guns21 Ãâ"Ã 5/51 caliber guns2 Ãâ" 21Ã torpedo tubes Ã¢â¬â¹USS WyomingÃ (BB-32) - Design: Originating at the 1908 Newport Conference, the Wyoming-class of battleship represented the US Navys fourth type of dreadnought after the earlierÃ -,Ã -, andÃ -classes. Ã The initial design came about through war games and discussions as the preceding classes had not yet entered service. Ã Key among the conferences conclusions was the need for increasingly larger calibers of main armament. Ã Through the latter part of 1908, debate ensued over the layout and armament of the new class with various configurations being considered. Ã On March 30, 1909, Congress approved construction of two Design 601 battleships. Ã This design called for a ship approximately 20% larger than theÃ Florida-class and mounting twelve 12 guns. Ã Designated USS WyomingÃ (BB-32) and USSÃ ArkansasÃ (BB-33), the two ships of the new class were powered by twelve Babcock and Wilcox coal-fired boilers with direct drive turbines turning four propellers. Ã Layout of the main armament saw the twelve 12 guns spread through six twin turrets inÃ superfiring (one firing over the other) pairs forward, amidships, and aft. Ã To support the main battery, designers added twenty-one 5 guns with the majority mounted in individual casemates below the main deck. In addition, the battleships carried two 21 torpedo tubes. Ã For protection, the Wyoming-class possessed a main armor belt eleven inches thick. Ã Assigned to William Cramp Sons in Philadelphia, work commenced onÃ WyomingÃ on February 9, 1910. Ã Moving ahead over the next fifteen months, the new battleship slid down the ways May 25, 1911, with Dorothy Knight, daughter of Wyoming Supreme Court Chief Justice Jesse Knight, serving as sponsor. Ã With the completion of construction,Ã WyomingÃ shifted to the Philadelphia Navy Yard where it entered commission on September 25, 1912, with Captain Frederick L. Chapin in command. Ã Steaming north, the new battleship finished final fitting out at the New York Navy Yard before sailing to join the Atlantic Fleet. USS Wyoming (BB-32) - Early Service: Arriving at Hampton Roads on December 30,Ã Wyoming became flagship for Rear Admiral Charles J. Badger, commander of the Atlantic Fleet. Ã Departing the following week, the battleship steamed south to the Panama Canal construction site before conducting exercises off Cuba. Ã Returning north in March,Ã WyomingÃ underwent minor repairs before returning to the fleet.Ã The remainder of the year saw the battleship engaged in routine peacetime activities until October when it sailed for the Mediterranean to make goodwill visits toÃ Malta, Italy, and France.Ã Returning home in December, Wyoming entered the yard at New York for a brief overhaul before joining the Atlantic Fleet off Cuba for winter maneuvers the following month. In May 1914, Wyoming steamed south with a contingent of troops to support the US occupation of Veracruz which had commenced a few weeks earlier.Ã Remaining in the area, the battleship assisted operationsÃ relating to the occupation into the fall.Ã Following repairs at New York, Wyoming spent the next two years following theÃ US Navys standard cycle of maneuvers inÃ northern waters during the summer andÃ in the CaribbeanÃ in the winter.Ã Having completed exercises off Cuba in late March 1917, the battleship found itself offÃ Yorktown, VA when word arrived that the United States had declared war on GermanyÃ and entered World War I. USS Wyoming (BB-32) - World War I: For the next seven months, Wyoming operated in the Chesapeake training engineers for the fleet.Ã That fall, the battleship received orders to join USS New York (BB-34), USS Florida (BB-30), and USS Delaware (BB-28) in Battleship Division 9.Ã Led by Rear Admiral Hugh Rodman, this formation departed in November to reinforce Admiral Sir David Beattys British Grand Fleet at Scapa Flow.Ã Arriving inÃ December, the force was redesignated the 6th Battle Squadron.Ã Commencing combat operations in February 1918, the American ships aided in protecting convoys bound for Norway. Continuing similar operations through the year, Wyoming became the squadrons flagship in October after New York collided with a German U-boat.Ã With the conflicts end in November, the battleship sortied with the Grand Fleet on the 21st to escort the German High Seas Fleet into internment at Scapa Flow.Ã On DecemberÃ 12, Wyoming,Ã carrying new squadron commander RearÃ Admiral William Sims, sailed forÃ France where it rendezvoused with SS George Washington which was transporting President Woodrow Wilson to the peace conference at Versailles.Ã Following a brief port call in Britain, the battleship left European waters and arrivedÃ at New York on Christmas Day. USS Wyoming (BB-32) - Postwar Years: Briefly serving as flagship of Battleship Division 7, Wyoming aided in directing a flight Curtiss NC-1 flyingÃ boats on a trans-Atlantic flight in May 1919.Ã Entering Norfolk Navy Yard in July, the battleship underwent aÃ modernization program in anticipation of its transfer to the Pacific.Ã Designated flagship of the Pacific Fleets Battleship Division 6, Wyoming departed for the West Coast later that summer and arrived at San Diego on August 6.Ã Conducting maneuvers through the following year, the battleship then cruised toÃ Valparaiso, Chile in early 1921.Ã Transferred back to the AtlanticÃ that August, WyomingÃ embarked the Atlantic Fleets commander Admiral Hilary P. Jones.Ã Over the next six years, theÃ vessel resumed its previous cycle of peacetime training which was only punctuated by a European cruise in 1924 which includedÃ visits to Britain, theÃ Netherlands, Gibraltar, and the Azores. In 1927, Wyoming arrived at the Philadelphia Navy YardÃ for an extensiveÃ modernization.Ã Ã This saw the addition of anti-torpedo bulges, the installation of new oil-fired boilers, as well as some alterations to the superstructure.Ã Ã Completing a shakedown cruise in December, Wyoming became flagship of Vice Admiral Ashley Robertsons Scouting Fleet.Ã In this role for three years, it also aided in training NROTC detachments from several universities.Ã After brief service with Battleship Division 2, the aging Wyoming wasÃ pulledÃ from frontline service and assigned to Rear Admiral Harley H. Christys Training Squadron.Ã Placed in reduced commission in January 1931,Ã efforts commenced to demilitarize the battleship in accordance with the London NavalÃ Treaty.Ã This saw the anti-torpedo bulges,Ã half the main battery, and the ships side armor removed. USS Wyoming (BB-32) - Training Ship: Brought back to active service in May, Wyoming embarked a contingent of midshipmen from the US Naval Academy and NROTC cadets for a training cruise toÃ Europe and the Caribbean.Ã Redesignated AG-17 in August, the former battleship spent the next five years in a training role.Ã In 1937, while taking part in amphibious assault exercise off California, a 5 shell accidently exploded killing six and wounding eleven.Ã Later that year, Wyoming conducted a goodwill call to Kiel, Germany where its crewÃ visited the pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee.Ã With the beginning of World War II in Europe in September 1939, the ship assumed a place in the AtlanticÃ Naval Reserve Force.Ã Two years later,Ã WyomingÃ commenced conversion into a gunnery training ship. Beginning this duty in November 1941, WyomingÃ was operating off Platts Bank when word was received of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.Ã As the US Navy expanded to meet the demands of a two-oceanÃ war, the old battleship remained engaged in training gunners for the fleet.Ã Earning the nickname Chesapeake Raider for its frequent appearances in the bay, WyomingÃ continued in this duty until January 1944.Ã Entering the yard at Norfolk, it commenced a modernization which saw the removal of its remaining 12 guns and the conversion of the turrets into single andÃ dual mounts for 5Ã guns.Ã Resuming its training mission in April, Wyoming remained in this role until June 30, 1945.Ã Ordered north it joined the Operational Development Force andÃ aided in devising tactics to combat Japanese kamikazes. With the end of the war, Wyoming continued to operate with this force.Ã Ordered toÃ Norfolk in 1947, it arrived on July 11 and was decommissioned on August 1.Ã Stricken from the Naval Vessel Registry on September 16, Wyoming was sold for scrap the following month.Ã Transferred to New York, this work began that December. Selected Sources: DANFS: USSÃ WyomingÃ (BB-32)NHHC: USSÃ WyomingÃ (BB-32)MaritimeQuest: USSÃ WyomingÃ (BB-32)